Saturday, January 19, 2019

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   Process Minimize  

General Cleaning Codes used in Upholstery:


Code “S” (solvent or dry cleaning products)

Vacuum frequently or brush lightly to remove dust and grime. This prevents soil accumulation. Spot clean with a mild water-free solvent or dry cleaning product. Avoid any product containing carbon tetrachloride, which is highly toxic. Always pretest a small inconspicuous area before proceeding. Never remove cushion covers or arm caps for separate cleaning. It may destroy the backing, causing the item to shrink or change color.

Code “SW”

Spot clean with upholstery shampoo, foam from a mild detergent, or mild dry cleaning solvent. Always pretest a small, inconspicuous area before continuing. Do not saturate the fabric with cleaner and pile fabrics may require brushing with a non-metallic, stiff bristle brush to restore appearance. Hot water extraction or steam cleaning is not recommended. Frequent vacuuming or brushing lightly is recommended to remove dust, dirt, and grime. When cleaning a spill, blot immediately to remove spilled material. Clean spots or stains from the outside to the middle of the affected area to prevent circling. Use a professional once an all over soiling has been reached.

Code “W” (water based cleaners)

Use water-based upholstery cleaner only.  Professional dry cleaning is recommended.

Code “W-S” (solvent and/or water based cleaners)

Vacuum frequently or brush lightly to remove dust and grime. This prevents soil accumulation. Spot clean with a mild solvent, upholstery shampoo, or the foam from mild detergent. Always pretest a small inconspicuous area before proceeding. Use a professional furniture cleaning service when an overall soiled condition has been reached.

Code “X” (vacuum or brush only)

This fabric should only be cleaned by vacuuming or brushing lightly to prevent accumulation of dirt, dust, and grime. Water-based foam cleaners or solvent-based cleaning agents of any kind may cause excessive shrinkage, staining, or discoloration. 


   Process Minimize  

 General Dyeing and Finishing used in Upholstery:


Backing or Coating

A latex layer is applied to the back of the fabric with a squeegee. Various amounts (light, medium, or heavy) of latex can be applied depending on the looseness of the weave and the durability standards desired. The latex is applied as the fabric is held in place, or taut, with a tenter frame. The tenter uses small pins along the selvedge of the fabric to secure it.



Used to add the shine to cotton prints in creating chintz, as well as adding luster and a softer hand to other woven fabrics.  Fabric is passed between two drums, one metal, that apply extreme pressure and heat. Additional luster is achieved by pressing the face or topside of the fabric against the metal drum. Pressing the backside of the fabric against the metal drum derives a lower luster. Adjustments in heat and pressure will affect the end result.



This is a finishing process that has been embraced by the contract furnishings industry making the fabric virtually stain proof.  This many step process is highly used in hospitals, restaurants, and other high traffic areas.


Moiré Finish  

A finish created by passing fabric between two rollers or drums that have non-matching grooves carved into them. When the fabric passes between the drums it is permanently engraved with a pattern that resembles a watermark.


Needle Punching

A finish applied when fabrics may not have enough structural stability, usually due to loose weaves or a low end or pick count. In this process barbed needles push fibers from the face of the fabric to the back of the fabric. Once the fibers are on the back surface, a latex coating is applied to hold the textile together, making it stronger and enhancing its performance.


Spray Coating

A latex coating is sprayed on the back of fabric to give the textile additional stability. This is applied without the use of a tenter frame but the fabric is kept in a relaxed state and not held taut or stretched by the framing.


Steam Setting

In this process fabrics are treated with hot steam rather than being submerged into liquid. The advantage of this method is the reduction in the amount of shrinkage that results from washing while yielding some of the soft look and hand of the wet process.



 Washing is a method of submerging textiles in large vats of water. The exposure to water causes yarns to bloom or soften. While drying, the fabric may also shrink in both width and length. The loss of dimension may be an issue in that it reduces yield requiring more yardage to create products. The higher loft, softer hand and drape may offset the loss of size depending on the desired end result for the textile.

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